Head and Neck Cansers


Head and neck cancers can occur under the influence of various factors and constitute approximately 10% of all body cancers. Head and neck cancers are named in various forms according to the region where they are located and the sub-locality in this region (Table 1).

Table 1: Head and Neck Cancers

  • Scalp and facial skin cancers
  • Nose, paranasal sinus cancers
  • Lip cancer
  • Nasopharynx cancers
  • Oral cavity cancers (tongue, oral cavity, gingiva, cheek, hard palate, soft palate)
  • Larynx (Throat) cancers
  • Cancers of the hypopharynx
  • Retromolar trigone cancers
  • Priform sinus cancers
  • Orofarinks cancers
  • Post cricoid carcinomas
  • Tonsillar cancers
  • Farinx’s posterior wall cancers
  • Cervical esophagus cancers
  • Tongue cancer
  • Cervical tracheal cancers
  • Farinx’s posterior wall cancers
  • Thyroid cancers
  • Salivary gland cancers

To be Alert for warning signs: No SMOKING, Less Head and Neck Cancer Risk.
Smoking is the most preventable cause of these deaths. More than 200,000 people die each year from smoking-related illnesses in the United States. The good news is that this number drops with the increase in the number of Americans who quit smoking. The bad news is that some smokers are turning to smokeless tobacco, chewable tobacco, which is a safe alternative but not true. This only carries the cancer risk in the lungs from the lungs. The incidence of head and neck cancer is increased while the incidence of lung cancer is decreasing. It can be said that these rates are higher with the use of cigarettes which is very common in Turkey.
Head and neck cancers can be treated if they are caught early. Early manifestation of head and neck cancer provides early diagnosis. You should know the possible stimulant signs and warn your doctor as soon as possible.
Remember that successful treatment of head and neck cancers is due to early diagnosis. Knowing a number of stimuli saves your life in head and neck cancer.

Early Diagnosis is important and it must be treated

What should we see?

  – Swelling in neck

Baş boyun kanserleri genellikle vücutta herhangi bir yere yayılmadan önce boyundaki lenf düğümlerine yayılır. Boyunda 2 haftadan uzun sürede geçmeyen şişlikler mümkün olan en kısa zamanda bir doktor tarafından görülmelidir. Tabii ki tüm şişlikler kanser demek değildir. Ancak şişlik ya da şişlikler ağız, gırtlak, guatr  kanseri, bazı lenf kanserleri ve kan kanserinin ilk belirtisi olabilir. Böyle şişlikler genellikle ağrısız ve gittikçe büyüme eğilimindedir.

Head and neck cancers usually spread to the lymph nodes in the neck before spreading to any part of the body. Swelling that does not last for over 2 weeks in the neck should be seen by a doctor as soon as possible. Of course, not all swellings are cancer. However, swelling or swelling can be the first sign of mouth, throat, thyroid gland cancer, some lymphoid cancers, and blood cancer. Such swellings are usually painless and tend to grow.

  – Voice disorders

Most laryngeal cancers cause voice changes. A voice pester or voice changes lasting longer than two weeks should warn you in the eyes of your doctor. Your voice can be examined easily and painlessly by an ENT doctor. Although many voice disorders are not the cause of cancer, you should not let it happen. If your voice problem lasts longer than 2 weeks, you should be sure that you do not have laryngeal cancer and you should go to your doctor.

 Pathology in lip and tongue

Most cancers of the tongue and lips cause uncomfortable scarring and swelling. Wounds and swellings are painless unless inflamed. Although hemorrhage can be seen, it is often not seen until the later stages of the disease. If accompanied by a mass in the neck of the wound or swelling, this must be taken seriously. Your dentist or doctor can assess whether you need a biopsy (tissue sampling test) and refer you to a head and neck surgeon for this procedure.

  – Bleeding

This is often linked to a cause other than cancer. However, mouth, nose, throat and lung tumors can cause bleeding. If you have sputum or sputum bleeding for more than a few days, you should see a doctor.

  – Disphagia

Throat and esophagus cancers make it hard to swallow solid foods and sometimes fluids. The food wakes up at a certain point or goes back to the midway or comes back from the mouth. In this case you should consult a doctor. It is usually caused by the direct examination of the food borne by means of an X-ray barium swallowing film or an endsocopy.

  – Pathologies on skin

Head and Neck  skin cancer responds well to early treatment. The most common is face, ear, skin, etc., where the skin is exposed to the sun, but can be anywhere on the skin. Skin cancer often starts in the form of a small pale wound, slowly growing and forming a dimple-like pit or even an ulcer in the middle. As part of this area heals, a larger part remains in the country. Some skin cancers show color change.
Among other types of cancer seen in the forehead are; Squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Some of the squamous cell cancers are seen in the lower lip and ear. It is similar to skin cancer and usually does not become more dangerous if it is diagnosed and treated properly. If there is an unhealed wound on the lip, face or ear, consult a doctor immediately. Malignant melanoma is traditionally caused by dark blue color change in skin on the skin. However, the size, the color change, the beginning of the bleeding are also an issue. In the presence of a blue-black stain that varies in size and shape, especially on the face and neck, a skin disease specialist or other doctor should be consulted as soon as possible.

  – Otalgia

During swallowing, the ear and surrounding pain may be due to the growth of the throat or infection or secondary to other pathologies. Such a complaint; It is even more striking with swelling of the swallowing, phobia or swelling in its neck. As soon as these findings come out, It should also be evaluated by the ENT Specialist.

Identification of high risk in head and neck cancers:
About 30% of head and neck cancers are closely related to long-term exposure to specific factors such as smoking and alcohol. In adults who do not smoke and drink, mouth and throat cancer hardly ever occurs. Long-term exposure to sunlight is associated with lip cancer and is the biggest cause of skin cancer.

What should you do?
All the symptoms and symptoms described can also occur in non-cancerous conditions. In fact, most of the time these complaints can also be seen in some other situations outside of cancer. But you can not say it without a good examination. For this reason, go to your doctor in the presence of these complaints and be sure.

Remember !
The early diagnosis of head and neck cancer has a great deal to do with the success of treatment. We believe that the rates of treatment will increase with the medical proposals reaching a large number of people.

If you suspect that there is a statement about head and neck cancer go to a doctor immediately